FAQs in Urology

What is Urology ?
Urology is a medical speciality concerned with conditions and diseases of the genital and urinary tract in men , women and children .
Urologists also diagnose and treat disorders of the male reproductive system.
How many times a day does a healthy person urinate ?
Urination frequency varies widely , but most healthy people use the bathroom four to eight times a day. More frequent urination or waking up at night to go to the bathroom may signal a health problem or simply that you're drinking too much before or at bedtime.
What can I do to maintain good urologic health ?
The best way to avoid urological problems is to maintain good overall health habits , including exercising regularly ,maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding tobacco , excessive alcohol and caffeine.
You should also avoid foods or substances that remove water from the body , known as diuretic.
"What all you need to carry/inform to your Doctor during the first appointment?"
Before meeting your urologist for the first time, here’s a checklist of items you should be prepared:
1. All symptoms along with their characteristics and duration
2. All recent medical tests such as blood tests, urine tests, etc.
3. If you have any existing medical conditions, bring along your prescription and related medical information
4. Information about your family history
5. Your insurance details or company ID card, if the hospital is on your panel.
Will any urinary problems affect my sex life?
Urinary problems such as incontinence, prostate problems or UTI’s (Urinary Tract Infection) have a detrimental effect on the sex life. Patients with urinary problems should talk to their doctor openly about sexual issues if any.
How often does kidney stone appear and what causes it?
In India, it is expected 12 % of the population is expected to have urinary stones, with recurrent stones a possibility, in almost 50% of stone patients.
Kidney stones are normally due to an extra build-up of calcium, uric acid, oxalates or phosphates in urine.
Causes of kidney stones:
1. Due to recurrent infections, such as UTI.
2. Hot climate increase the concentration of solutes in urine
3. Dehydration: People who drink less than the recommended 8 – 10 glasses of water may be susceptible to kidney stones
4. Metabolic causes such as hyperparathyroidism, Gout
5. Immobilization (such as a paraplegic patient), sedentary life style
6. Randall’s plaques
7. Renal anomalies like PUJ obstruction.
8. Family history of stone formers
9. Some drugs leads to stone formation
Does diet affect the formation of kidney stones?
Yes, diet affects the formation of kidney stones. Not drinking enough water, diet rich in red meat, dry fruits, calcium and oxalates can cause kidney stones.
Is prostatitis contagious? Can it be prevented?
Prostatitis due to bacterial infection is contagious. Unsafe sex can lead to spread of the bacteria to the partner.
There are certain measures one must take to make to avoid prostatitis:
1. Hygiene is your priority. Make sure you are cleaning yourself regularly especially your penis and foreskin
2. Ejaculate regularly- if you ejaculate infrequently or practice ‘Bhramcharya’, your semen (prostatic secretions) accumulates inside prostate and leads to infection.
3. Do not go for urination immediately after sex/ ejaculation. If you urinate immediately after ejaculation, urine enters into opened prostatic glands orifices and causes prostatitis.
4. Hydrate yourself to make sure your urination is adequate.
5. If you are prone to UTI’s, get routinely examined.
6. If you are diabetic, get regular checkups and control your blood sugar level. 7. Practice safe sex
What is Hematuria and is it a serious condition?
When you find blood in urine that is known as hematuria. Hematuria is a sign, rather than a condition, for a range of conditions, from kidney disease to an enlarged prostate. It may be early sign for cancer. Therefore even if hematuria resolves by its own or by some medications, it should always be investigated for its cause. Ignoring it at early phase may lead to advancement of disease specially cancer.
In adult more than 40 year of age, even a single episode of hematuria should warrant investigations to rule out cancer.
What steps can I take to prevent prostate problems?
The certain steps one can take to prevent prostate problems:
1. Exercising regularly
2. Healthy balanced vegetarian diet
3. Healthy frequency of ejaculation
4. Hygiene of the penis and the surrounding areas
5. Safe sex
Are there any long-term side effects of BPH?
Urination problems such as difficulty of starting stream, poor flow, frequent urination especially at night, unable to control urination and sometime leakage are common symptoms of BPH. If these are not treated well in time it may lead to complications like blood in urine or semen, urine retention, bladder muscle weakness, kidney failure, hernia formation, stone formation etc. If these complications appear then surgery becomes mandatory. Erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction may occur.
What is BPH and is it harmful?
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of prostate gland. The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland in men, placed around the urethra below urinary bladder. It is not testis as confused by a few. This enlarged gland slowly squeezes on the urethra and decreases the flow of urine. BPH is a normal, aging process for men. In more than 50 % individuals it causes urinary problems and requires treatment. Mostly these problems can be managed by medicines but sometimes surgery is required. Now a day’s prostate surgery is done by endoscopy which is minimally invasive and use of laser make it further safe even in high risk old age individuals.

FAQs in Ophthalmology

How often should I get my eyes checked?
For an adult who is using spectacles or contact lenses, eye examination should be done once in a year.
I used to see clearly earlier but now it is getting difficult to read a book and see the text on mobile. Why?
After 40 years your eyes gradually lose the ability to see near things which is due to aging changes in the eye (k/a Presbyopia), hence one needs reading glasses .
I donot have any problem in my eyes, do I still need to see an ophthalmologist?
Yes.Because a regular eye examination can pick up silent conditions like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy etc in initial stage.
What is cataract?
Normally the lens of our eye is clear and transparent, when it loses its transparency and becomes opaque it is called as Cataract.
What problem I can have if my eyes have cataract?
An opaque lens does not allow transmission of light rays, hence your vision starts getting dimmer, you can have excessive glare in bright lights which can make night driving troublesome.It can also lead to frequent change in glasses or double vision sometimes.
Can use of eyedrops help me to get rid of cataract?
No.Surgery is the only treatment for cataract.
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